Hermes Bag The Secrets Of Attaining Your Desires

Posted by on July 22, 2014

Hermes Bag The Secrets of Attaining Your Desires


Darron RoedlIntroduction

The universal need to acquire, to succeed, the secrets of attaining your desires what ever they may very well be is common to all human beings. It is also something many people locate difficult, and it appears to be all have to experience some failure and most come across they truth some tests along the way in which.

It looks that the path to results in every single endeavor is fraught with trials and tribulations all around every single corner. Daily life\’s classes are what seem to be to be the offered for most who seek and discover accomplishment and there are usually people that look for, but who find the journey as well hard and give up.

So just what the heck is the magic formula, and is there one particular. What does 1 person do this yet another would not do to deliver about the rewards and results?

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The Beginning

In order to possess the results of attaining your wishes, in the starting could be the establishment of your aim. This may perhaps seem to be the simplest move of your procedure, but in actuality, it can be the true secret to attaining whatever it\’s that you motivation. You have to first know what it is that you simply want ahead of it is often achieved. Not just the strategy that I want this or that, but a highway map as well as a figuring out of just what it can be. You have to see within your minds eye precisely everything you desire, all of the way decrease for the smallest detail of the real final need.

Can you visualize the accomplished target in you meditations, can you see the coloration, the written content, the measurement, the many info, and may you\’re feeling the emotion of that which you count on the accomplishment being once you produce the finished merchandise of your respective efforts.

The factor that most men and women usually do not understand, is the fact that by developing the finished merchandise of your respective motivation within your minds eye and experiencing it as an achieved reality, you may have produced the thing in question, and now all that remains could be the method of experiencing the physical creation to be brought into your actual actuality.

The Building

As long as you usually do not adjust the authentic imagined with the accomplished actuality, as extended as you recognize inside your being that the generation inside your vision is staying brought into actuality, it is going to start off to type, and at some point appear within your actuality. The method will be one among growth, among performing whatever is required to provide it into reality. You can have problems, but you will locate which the individuals, the resources, and also the way for making things come about will probably be brought into your employee. The true secret to this move from the method of development would be to keep a belief that the visualized objective as an accomplish truth. You can locate a technique to do whatever is essential to expedite the materialization of one\’s aim.

The Permitting

Here may be the stage that a great number of come across the hardest component of the approach of generation. It really is the permitting from the motivation to be brought into reality. What the heck is your expectation of your last outcome? What have you been emotions? Are they anxious, feeling doubt, and even anxiety? Some say that this can be pure to really feel these emotions. But you need to comprehend which the only factor that you must enable in is your feeling of absolute expectation of success. By permitting the emotion of dread, of doubt or of whatever apart from a good expectation of accomplishment you are changing the original development, and driving it further from your actuality. Keep a favourable and expectant attitude and you will carry concerning the actual manifestation of the unique wish.


In conclusion, the effective accomplishment of any worthwhile objective is brought about by:

  • Realizing exactly what it\’s that you choose to wish to achieve
  • Visualize just about every detail, and develop the accomplishment of one\’s wish in your own minds eye.
  • Determined effort, to accomplish the chores required to convey it into actuality.
  • Handle of one\’s thoughts, and manage of your respective emotions, to allow the method of your precise actual manifestation to get brought into reality via optimistic expectation.

The process is often a uncomplicated a person, that can be made extremely difficult due to numerous things, but through the optimistic regulate of your respective pondering,

nearly anything is possible towards the person who knows what it\’s that she or he desires, and believes they could be successful within the initial place.

In the event you need to have more specifics just stick to this :

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Britain touts private security contractors for Libya

Posted by on July 21, 2014

Friday, April 8, 2011 

Britain has raised the idea of using private security firms as part of efforts to bolster military support for Libyan rebels. Defence officials speaking to The Guardian have floated the idea as Western powers examine ways to turn the tide of the rebels’ stuttering campaign against forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi.

The sources also urged Arab countries to fund training for the rebels, whose inferior weaponry and organisation is widely agreed to have allowed pro-Gaddafi forces to check the insurgency’s recent gains.

The call to deploy private security contractors comes as the Afghan government has announced plans to phase out such operators over the next 12 months. The image of such firms has been severely tarnished by repeated revelations of abuse by the U.S. firm Blackwater Worldwide, subsequently renamed Xe Services. Blackwater executives and employees have faced civil lawsuits, criminal charges and Congressional investigations related to accusations of bribery and murder in Iraq and Afghanistan.

The collapse of numerous investigations related to several alleged incidents has raised questions about the legal accountability of firms operating in war zones on behalf of Western governments.

The suggested training of rebels and deployment of contractors appears to confirm Western powers’ determination to end Gaddafi’s grip on power.

Yesterday’s report in The Guardian interprets the move as the start of a new phase in the three-week-old NATO-led intervention in Libya, and a tacit admission by Western nations that the rebels are struggling to make ground despite NATO air support.

Britain’s focus on Arab participation in funding and training the rebels reflects a will on Western powers’ part to foster Arab ownership of the intervention, perceived as being crucial to building the legitimacy of the West’s support to Libyan rebels.

According to The Guardian, Western military strategy is now turning to cementing the rebels’ territorial gains before the negotiation of a ceasefire with the Gaddafi regime.

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Crane levels New York City townhouse, leaving 4 dead

Posted by on July 21, 2014

Sunday, March 16, 2008 

A construction crane fell from a New York City condominium on Saturday afternoon, demolishing a four-story townhouse and killing four construction workers.

At least ten people were injured in the accident, three of them critically, mayor Michael Bloomberg said. “This accident is one of the worst the city has had,” said the mayor. “Our thoughts go to the families. I hope we will not find other victims.” He added that authorities are investigating the cause of the accident.

The crane broke into pieces as it fell from a height of 15 or 20 stories, according to witnesses. It hit three residential buildings in the course of the fall and completely crushed the aforementioned townhouse, which housed a bar on the first floor. “The top of the crane went right through the building, and it sliced it in half,” said Maryann Krajacic, who lives next to the townhouse.

The bar was closed when the crane fell, but John LaGreco, who owns the bar, fears one of his employees may be dead within the rubble. “Our bar is done,” he said. “If I wasn’t watching a Yankees game, I would’ve come to work early and gotten killed.”

Cars were overturned and buried in rubble, and the air was filled with clouds of smoke and dust. Around 150 police officers blocked off the area, and 300 firefighters frantically searched for any additional victims. The search could continue all night, said Fire Commissioner Nicholas Scoppetta, and would include search dogs and thermal-imaging, and listening devices.

More than half a dozen buildings in the vicinity were evacuated, and a Red Cross shelter was set up nearby.

Stephen Kaplan, an owner of the Reliance Construction Group, says the accident resulted from a falling piece of steel, which severed one of the ties holding the crane to the building. “All the piece of steel had to do was fall slightly left or right, and nothing would have happened,” Kaplan said.

Manhattan Borough president Scott Stringer said local residents had often complained about security violations in the building’s construction; they asserted that crews worked illegal hours and that the building was going up too quickly. “Over the last year, this is becoming standard in my borough,” Stringer said. “I think we have a real issue here.”

On March 4, a caller told officials that the crane lacked a sufficient number of safety ties. It was inspected March 6, and no violation was issued. The crane was also inspected Friday, the day before the accident.

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Western Australian economy at crisis point say builders

Posted by on July 20, 2014

Saturday, June 7, 2008 

Western Australian Master Builders Association (MBA) yesterday demanded the Carpenter Government call an emergency cabinet meeting to avoid a “state of emergency” over the energy crisis gripping WA. A MBA spokesperson said that hundreds of workers have already been stood down, many without pay, and that the cost of building material is soaring.

The Minister for Energy, Fran Logan has admitted that the gas shortage caused by Tuesday’s fire is damaging the economy as mining, manufacturing and construction industries wind back operations. Western Australia’s two major brick producing companies have shut operations and Wesbeam’s $A100 million Neerabup pine production facility has been closed, their 130 employees have been stood down.

Wesbeam chief executive James Malone said, “It’s an industrial tsunami in my view. It’s a little ripple that has very quickly had a huge multiplying effect on the whole community”.

Michael McLean, Master Building Association director said “It’s a worst-nightmare scenario, and not one we could have imagined in our wildest dreams,” building supplies are expected to start running out by the middle of next week.

Premier Carpenter has announced a meeting of ministers and industry representatives to take place on Sunday to discuss solutions to the growing crisis. Tim Wall, managing director of Apache Corporation has said Apache is conducting a worldwide search for the parts need to repair the pipeline.

Major mining companies and Apache partners BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto have already reported they are suffering with the loss of gas supply; the Chamber of Minerals and Energy has talked down the effect saying that they don’t expect the crisis to take the heat off the booming mining industry.

Opposition leader Troy Buswell has describe the performance of Fran Logan as “absolutely dismal” noting that Mr Logan had experienced a similar incident in January this year, when a fire at Woodsides Karratha operations had a similar effect.

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Computer Troubleshooting Guide &Amp; Fix Common Errors

Posted by on July 20, 2014

Submitted by: Touch Support

Technology is evolving faster than user habits can cope. The ultimate purpose that drives innovators in the technology space is unsurprisingly equitable. However while new systems emerge out of the need for efficiency, end users and communities still face the challenge of transitioning to these platforms. The internet is one such phenomenon that is leveraging ideas to being transformational change. These technologies are inherently collaborative, and for that purpose, far more interactive than anything we might have expected a decade earlier. The infrastructures on which these are built are also progressing at the speed of thought, and users are becoming a part of the revolution.

We could not imagine, even until a few years ago, that our phones could do what out computers did, or that operating systems would completely move over to a tablet design that adapted the swipe-scroll or drag-pinch interfaces. The largest corporations today are doing just that. With the preview launch of Windows 8 and Apple OSX Mountain Lion, the computing experience is leveled up. The problem arises when troubleshooting an issue on your computer. Windows and Mac both come with pre-loaded troubleshooting guides that allow you to access solutions to known problems. There is also a lot of information available on communities and blogs that provide troubleshooting information.

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The Computer Troubleshooting Guide is an online resource that specializes in tech support for resolving the most recent or common issues. Additionally you can find tips on installation, configuration, and updates for antivirus, tune up tools, browser, applications, and other Windows and OSX utilities. The tech review covers the latest releases in gadgets and software and tips to enhance gaming and multimedia viewing. You can also find previous tech support case files, which are incidences of phone helpline and computer remote support provided by technicians for Touch support. These are issues that have been successfully resolved and case filed for training and instructional purposes.

Computer troubleshooting guide provides easy to use material for computer troubleshooting, to fix PC errors, remove virus, and install Windows. Follow the step by step instructions to resolve Windows and Mac Issues with access to online tech support for advice and solutions.

The Computer Troubleshooting Guide is also a place where you can have a lot of fun and engage in discussions about the latest trends in technology. So if you bought the new iPad 3 or the latest android device, we d like to hear about it. You can bring your issues related to computers and peripherals and get the best answers from the community or technology and troubleshooting experts. This is an effective way to have your PC errors resolved. You can always ask for more help or even have a virtual technician take a look at your computer and do the troubleshooting remotely.

Using material in the troubleshooting guide, you can resolve Windows installation problems, update your operating system, install third party programs, get subscription support with access to online tech support for advice and solutions.

About the Author: HCL Touch brings her experience in working with trusted technicians to troubleshoot computer slowdown and PC tune up. Cathy draws on an extensive resource for PC optimization and tune up. Get online computer support today! For more visit here:


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Top-down and bottom-up design

Posted by on July 19, 2014

Top-down and bottom-up are both strategies of information processing and knowledge ordering, used in a variety of fields including software, humanistic and scientific theories (see systemics), and management and organization. In practice, they can be seen as a style of thinking and teaching.

A top-down approach (also known as stepwise design and in some cases used as a synonym of decomposition) is essentially the breaking down of a system to gain insight into its compositional sub-systems. In a top-down approach an overview of the system is formulated, specifying but not detailing any first-level subsystems. Each subsystem is then refined in yet greater detail, sometimes in many additional subsystem levels, until the entire specification is reduced to base elements. A top-down model is often specified with the assistance of “black boxes”, these make it easier to manipulate. However, black boxes may fail to elucidate elementary mechanisms or be detailed enough to realistically validate the model. Top down approach starts with the big picture. It breaks down from there into smaller segments.[1]

A bottom-up approach is the piecing together of systems to give rise to more complex systems, thus making the original systems sub-systems of the emergent system. Bottom-up processing is a type of information processing based on incoming data from the environment to form a perception. Information enters the eyes in one direction (input), and is then turned into an image by the brain that can be interpreted and recognized as a perception (output). In a bottom-up approach the individual base elements of the system are first specified in great detail. These elements are then linked together to form larger subsystems, which then in turn are linked, sometimes in many levels, until a complete top-level system is formed. This strategy often resembles a “seed” model, whereby the beginnings are small but eventually grow in complexity and completeness. However, “organic strategies” may result in a tangle of elements and subsystems, developed in isolation and subject to local optimization as opposed to meeting a global purpose.

During the design and development of new products, designers and engineers rely on both a bottom-up and top-down approach. The bottom-up approach is being utilized when off-the-shelf or existing components are selected and integrated into the product. An example would include selecting a particular fastener, such as a bolt, and designing the receiving components such that the fastener will fit properly. In a top-down approach, a custom fastener would be designed such that it would fit properly in the receiving components.[2] For perspective, for a product with more restrictive requirements (such as weight, geometry, safety, environment, etc.), such as a space-suit, a more top-down approach is taken and almost everything is custom designed. However, when it’s more important to minimize cost and increase component availability, such as with manufacturing equipment, a more bottom-up approach would be taken, and as many off-the-shelf components (bolts, gears, bearings, etc.) would be selected as possible. In the latter case, the receiving housings would be designed around the selected components.

In the software development process, the top-down and bottom-up approaches play a key role.

Top-down approaches emphasize planning and a complete understanding of the system. It is inherent that no coding can begin until a sufficient level of detail has been reached in the design of at least some part of the system. Top-down approaches are implemented by attaching the stubs in place of the module. This, however, delays testing of the ultimate functional units of a system until significant design is complete. Bottom-up emphasizes coding and early testing, which can begin as soon as the first module has been specified. This approach, however, runs the risk that modules may be coded without having a clear idea of how they link to other parts of the system, and that such linking may not be as easy as first thought. Re-usability of code is one of the main benefits of the bottom-up approach.[3]

Top-down design was promoted in the 1970s by IBM researchers Harlan Mills and Niklaus Wirth. Mills developed structured programming concepts for practical use and tested them in a 1969 project to automate the New York Times morgue index. The engineering and management success of this project led to the spread of the top-down approach through IBM and the rest of the computer industry. Among other achievements, Niklaus Wirth, the developer of Pascal programming language, wrote the influential paper Program Development by Stepwise Refinement. Since Niklaus Wirth went on to develop languages such as Modula and Oberon (where one could define a module before knowing about the entire program specification), one can infer that top down programming was not strictly what he promoted. Top-down methods were favored in software engineering until the late 1980s,[3] and object-oriented programming assisted in demonstrating the idea that both aspects of top-down and bottom-up programming could be utilized.

Modern software design approaches usually combine both top-down and bottom-up approaches. Although an understanding of the complete system is usually considered necessary for good design, leading theoretically to a top-down approach, most software projects attempt to make use of existing code to some degree. Pre-existing modules give designs a bottom-up flavor. Some design approaches also use an approach where a partially functional system is designed and coded to completion, and this system is then expanded to fulfill all the requirements for the project

Top-down is a programming style, the mainstay of traditional procedural languages, in which design begins by specifying complex pieces and then dividing them into successively smaller pieces. The technique for writing a program using top–down methods is to write a main procedure that names all the major functions it will need. Later, the programming team looks at the requirements of each of those functions and the process is repeated. These compartmentalized sub-routines eventually will perform actions so simple they can be easily and concisely coded. When all the various sub-routines have been coded the program is ready for testing. By defining how the application comes together at a high level, lower level work can be self-contained. By defining how the lower level abstractions are expected to integrate into higher level ones, interfaces become clearly defined.

In a bottom-up approach, the individual base elements of the system are first specified in great detail. These elements are then linked together to form larger subsystems, which then in turn are linked, sometimes in many levels, until a complete top-level system is formed. This strategy often resembles a “seed” model, whereby the beginnings are small, but eventually grow in complexity and completeness. Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a paradigm that uses “objects” to design applications and computer programs. In mechanical engineering with software programs such as Pro/ENGINEER, Solidworks, and Autodesk Inventor users can design products as pieces not part of the whole and later add those pieces together to form assemblies like building with LEGO. Engineers call this piece part design.

This bottom-up approach has one weakness. Good intuition is necessary to decide the functionality that is to be provided by the module. If a system is to be built from existing system, this approach is more suitable as it starts from some existing modules.

Parsing is the process of analyzing an input sequence (such as that read from a file or a keyboard) in order to determine its grammatical structure. This method is used in the analysis of both natural languages and computer languages, as in a compiler.

Bottom-up parsing is a strategy for analyzing unknown data relationships that attempts to identify the most fundamental units first, and then to infer higher-order structures from them. Top-down parsers, on the other hand, hypothesize general parse tree structures and then consider whether the known fundamental structures are compatible with the hypothesis. See Top-down parsing and Bottom-up parsing.

Top-down and bottom-up are two approaches for the manufacture of products. These terms were first applied to the field of nanotechnology by the Foresight Institute in 1989 in order to distinguish between molecular manufacturing (to mass-produce large atomically precise objects) and conventional manufacturing (which can mass-produce large objects that are not atomically precise). Bottom-up approaches seek to have smaller (usually molecular) components built up into more complex assemblies, while top-down approaches seek to create nanoscale devices by using larger, externally controlled ones to direct their assembly.

The top-down approach often uses the traditional workshop or microfabrication methods where externally controlled tools are used to cut, mill, and shape materials into the desired shape and order. Micropatterning techniques, such as photolithography and inkjet printing belong to this category.

Bottom-up approaches, in contrast, use the chemical properties of single molecules to cause single-molecule components to (a) self-organize or self-assemble into some useful conformation, or (b) rely on positional assembly. These approaches utilize the concepts of molecular self-assembly and/or molecular recognition. See also Supramolecular chemistry. Such bottom-up approaches should, broadly speaking, be able to produce devices in parallel and much cheaper than top-down methods, but could potentially be overwhelmed as the size and complexity of the desired assembly increases.

These terms are also employed in neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience and cognitive psychology to discuss the flow of information in processing.[4] Typically sensory input is considered “down”, and higher cognitive processes, which have more information from other sources, are considered “up”. A bottom-up process is characterized by an absence of higher level direction in sensory processing, whereas a top-down process is characterized by a high level of direction of sensory processing by more cognition, such as goals or targets (Beiderman, 19).[3]

According to Psychology notes written by Dr. Charles Ramskov, a Psychology professor at De Anza College, Rock, Neiser, and Gregory claim that top-down approach involves perception that is an active and constructive process.[5] Additionally, it is an approach not directly given by stimulus input, but is the result of stimulus, internal hypotheses, and expectation interactions. According to Theoretical Synthesis, “when a stimulus is presented short and clarity is uncertain that gives a vague stimulus, perception becomes a top-down approach.”[6]

Conversely, Psychology defines bottom-up processing as an approach wherein there is a progression from the individual elements to the whole. According to Ramskov, one proponent of bottom-up approach, Gibson, claims that it is a process that includes visual perception that needs information available from proximal stimulus produced by the distal stimulus.[7] Theoretical Synthesis also claims that bottom-up processing occurs “when a stimulus is presented long and clearly enough.”[6]

Cognitively speaking, certain cognitive processes, such as fast reactions or quick visual identification, are considered bottom-up processes because they rely primarily on sensory information, whereas processes such as motor control and directed attention are considered top-down because they are goal directed. Neurologically speaking, some areas of the brain, such as area V1 mostly have bottom-up connections.[6] Other areas, such as the fusiform gyrus have inputs from higher brain areas and are considered to have top-down influence.[8]

The study of visual attention provides an example. If your attention is drawn to a flower in a field, it may be because the color or shape of the flower are visually salient. The information that caused you to attend to the flower came to you in a bottom-up fashion—your attention was not contingent upon knowledge of the flower; the outside stimulus was sufficient on its own. Contrast this situation with one in which you are looking for a flower. You have a representation of what you are looking for. When you see the object you are looking for, it is salient. This is an example of the use of top-down information.

In cognitive terms, two thinking approaches are distinguished. “Top-down” (or “big chunk”) is stereotypically the visionary, or the person who sees the larger picture and overview. Such people focus on the big picture and from that derive the details to support it. “Bottom-up” (or “small chunk”) cognition is akin to focusing on the detail primarily, rather than the landscape. The expression “seeing the wood for the trees” references the two styles of cognition.[9]

In management and organizational arenas, the terms “top-down” and “bottom-up” are used to indicate how decisions are made.

A “top-down” approach is one where an executive, decision maker, or other person or body makes a decision. This approach is disseminated under their authority to lower levels in the hierarchy, who are, to a greater or lesser extent, bound by them. For example, a structure in which decisions either are approved by a manager, or approved by his or her authorized representatives based on the manager’s prior guidelines, is top-down management.

A “bottom-up” approach is one that works from the grassroots—from a large number of people working together, causing a decision to arise from their joint involvement. A decision by a number of activists, students, or victims of some incident to take action is a “bottom-up” decision. Positive aspects of top-down approaches include their efficiency and superb overview of higher levels. Also, external effects can be internalized. On the negative side, if reforms are perceived to be imposed ‘from above’, it can be difficult for lower levels to accept them (e.g. Bresser Pereira, Maravall, and Przeworski 1993). Evidence suggests this to be true regardless of the content of reforms (e.g. Dubois 2002). A bottom-up approach allows for more experimentation and a better feeling for what is needed at the bottom.

Both approaches can be found in the organization of states, this involving political decisions.

In bottom-up organized organizations, e.g. ministries and their subordinate entities, decisions are prepared by experts in their fields, which define, out of their expertise, the policy they deem necessary. If they cannot agree, even on a compromise, they escalate the problem to the next higher hierarchy level, where a decision would be sought. Finally, the highest common principal might have to take the decision. Information is in the debt of the inferior to the superior, which means that the inferior owes information to the superior. In the effect, as soon as inferiors agree, the head of the organization only provides his or her “face? for the decision which their inferiors have agreed upon.

Among several countries, the German political system provides one of the purest forms of a bottom-up approach. The German Federal Act on the Public Service provides that any inferior has to consult and support any superiors, that he or she – only – has to follow “general guidelines” of the superiors, and that he or she would have to be fully responsible for any own act in office, and would have to follow a specific, formal complaint procedure if in doubt of the legality of an order.[10] Frequently, German politicians had to leave office on the allegation that they took wrong decisions because of their resistance to inferior experts’ opinions (this commonly being called to be “beratungsresistent”, or resistant to consultation, in German). The historical foundation of this approach lies with the fact that, in the 19th century, many politicians used to be noblemen without appropriate education, who more and more became forced to rely on consultation of educated experts, which (in particular after the Prussian reforms of Stein and Hardenberg) enjoyed the status of financially and personally independent, indismissable, and neutral experts as Beamte (public servants under public law).[11]

The experience of two dictatorships in the country and, after the end of such regimes, emerging calls for the legal responsibility of the “aidees of the aidees” (Helfershelfer) of such regimes also furnished calls for the principle of personal responsibility of any expert for any decision made, this leading to a strengthening of the bottom-up approach, which requires maximum responsibility of the superiors. A similar approach can be found in British police laws, where entitlements of police constables are vested in the constable in person and not in the police as an administrative agency, this leading to the single constable being fully responsible for his or her own acts in office, in particular their legality.

In the opposite, the French administration is based on a top-down approach, where regular public servants enjoy no other task than simply to execute decisions made by their superiors. As those superiors also require consultation, this consultation is provided by members of a cabinet, which is distinctive from the regular ministry staff in terms of staff and organization. Those members who are not members of the cabinet are not entitled to make any suggestions or to take any decisions of political dimension.

The advantage of the bottom-up approach is the level of expertise provided, combined with the motivating experience of any member of the administration to be responsible and finally the independent “engine” of progress in that field of personal responsibility. A disadvantage is the lack of democratic control and transparency, this leading, from a democratic viewpoint, to the deferment of actual power of policy-making to faceless, if even unknown, public servants. Even the fact that certain politicians might “provide their face” to the actual decisions of their inferiors might not mitigate this effect, but rather strong parliamentary rights of control and influence in legislative procedures (as they do exist in the example of Germany).

The advantage of the top-down principle is that political and administrative responsibilities are clearly distinguished from each other, and that responsibility for political failures can be clearly identified with the relevant office holder. Disadvantages are that the system triggers demotivation of inferiors, who know that their ideas to innovative approaches might not be welcome just because of their position, and that the decision-makers cannot make use of the full range of expertise which their inferiors will have collected.

Administrations in dictatorships traditionally work according to a strict top-down approach. As civil servants below the level of the political leadership are discouraged from making suggestions, they use to suffer from the lack of expertise which could be provided by the inferiors, which regularly leads to a breakdown of the system after an few decades. Modern communist states, which the People’s Republic of China forms an example of, therefore prefer to define a framework of permissible, or even encouraged, criticism and self-determination by inferiors, which would not affect the major state doctrine, but allows the use of professional and expertise-driven knowledge and the use of it for the decision-making persons in office.

Both top-down and bottom-up approaches exist in public health. There are many examples of top-down programs, often run by governments or large inter-governmental organizations (IGOs); many of these are disease-specific or issue-specific, such as HIV control or Smallpox Eradication. Examples of bottom-up programs include many small NGOs set up to improve local access to healthcare. However, a lot of programs seek to combine both approaches; for instance, guinea worm eradication, a single-disease international program currently run by the Carter Center has involved the training of many local volunteers, boosting bottom-up capacity, as have international programs for hygiene, sanitation, and access to primary health-care.

Often, the École des Beaux-Arts school of design is said to have primarily promoted top-down design because it taught that an architectural design should begin with a parti, a basic plan drawing of the overall project.

By contrast, the Bauhaus focused on bottom-up design. This method manifested itself in the study of translating small-scale organizational systems to a larger, more architectural scale (as with the woodpanel carving and furniture design).

In ecology, top-down control refers to when a top predator controls the structure or population dynamics of the ecosystem. The classic example is of kelp forest ecosystems. In such ecosystems, sea otters are a keystone predator. They prey on urchins which in turn eat kelp. When otters are removed, urchin populations grow and reduce the kelp forest creating urchin barrens. In other words, such ecosystems are not controlled by productivity of the kelp but rather a top predator.

Bottom up control in ecosystems refers to ecosystems in which the nutrient supply and productivity and type of primary producers (plants and phytoplankton) control the ecosystem structure. An example would be how plankton populations are controlled by the availability of nutrients. Plankton populations tend to be higher and more complex in areas where upwelling brings nutrients to the surface.

There are many different examples of these concepts. It is common for populations to be influenced by both types of control.

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Comments:Wimbledon Officials receive criticism from animal rights group after shooting birds

Posted by on July 17, 2014

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PETA crying about animals getting killed when they killed 19,200 animals. (reasons very) – 18:35, 25 June 2008 (UTC)

That why i say “reasons vary” if a animal that been torture yeah i understand it, But perfectly find animals have been killed because PETA believe no animals belong as pets. If the humane society was raising this issue I won’t have a problem.– 21:07, 25 June 2008 (UTC)

Street pigeons are typically considered vermin. PETA is annoying. –SVTCobra 21:13, 25 June 2008 (UTC)

Yes they are just proving heir stupidity by defending the rats with wings, that being said can’t you kill these f*ck*ng thngs by raising hawks? Nyarlathotep (talk) 22:26, 25 June 2008 (UTC)

This counts as ‘News’? Why does anyone care what PETA is whining about now? —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 03:47, 26 June 2008 (UTC) , Sorry, wasn’t logged in. Bo (talk) 03:52, 26 June 2008 (UTC)

PETA doesn’t mind killing animals and dumping their bodies. It doesn’t mind terrorising children at McDonalds. It does however mind if someone shoots vermin. Rather an odd group, PETA. Bo (talk) 03:52, 26 June 2008 (UTC)

And what makes humans more superior.

Animals shouldn’t need to be elevated to the same level as humans because thay should already be there. Animals have emotions and feel pain, why should they be inferior? Anonymous101 (talk) 05:45, 26 June 2008 (UTC)

Bo (talk) 18:45, 26 June 2008 (UTC)

Out here in the English countryside pigeon shooting is a sport. It’s not done on driven shoots like pheasants and the much smaller, faster, more intelligent and alert wood pigeons have a much fairer chance of survival.

People come here (many of them from the cities) to PAY to shoot pigeons. Often several hundred per day. And that’s not even mentioning the thousands that are shot every year by sportsmen and farmers who live out here.

Of course.. it is also totally necessary… a bunch of pigeons will make short work of an entire crop in very little time. Short work of MANY crops if allowed. Yes, some of you city folk find it hard to stomach, even when you’re eating your £50 stuffed wood pigeon from some fancy restaurant (ever wonder where it came from?) but that’s how the real world is. You think that the pigeon on your plate came from some sort of pigeon farm? Chances are that it too was shot. And if it was shot then it can be considered lucky because it had a TRULY free range life before being dipatched quickly and humanely. Unlike the birds on poultry farms that are killed by very hit and miss automated machinery or minimum wage workers who often have little idea what they’re doing. Keep your bullsh*t in Westminister and we’ll keep ours in the countryside.

The fact remains that pigeon shooting is a perfectly legitimate past time. Yes… even on tennis courts! It has been for far longer than PETA and city folk have been on this Earth. It is most definitely NOT illegal! Shane.Bell (talk) 07:28, 26 June 2008 (UTC)

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ChristenUnie blokkeert besluit Bussemaker over selectie embryo’s

Posted by on July 12, 2014

31 mei 2008 

De ChristenUnie heeft het besluit van PvdA-staatssecretaris van Volksgezondheid Jet Bussemaker om de selectie van embryo’s ter voorkoming van ernstige vormen van erfelijke kanker toe te staan, geblokkeerd. Bussemaker stuurde hierover maandag een brief naar de Tweede Kamer, maar zij had hierover niet van te voren overlegd met minister Ab Klink van Volksgezondheid. De staatssecretaris heeft het besluit vrijdag ingetrokken en de kwestie zal nu eerst in het kabinet behandeld worden, waarna een nieuw standpunt volgt.

De kwestie ligt gevoelig bij de christelijke partijen in de regering. Selectie van embryo’s op afwijkende genen bij ivf is nu alleen toegestaan als deze genen zeker zullen leiden tot levensbedreigende ziekten, zoals de ziekte van Huntington of de ziekte van Duchenne. Alleen gezonde embryo’s worden dan teruggplaatst in de baarmoeder. Bussemaker meende dat haar besluit alleen een technische toevoeging aan de bestaande praktijk was, maar de ChristenUnie wijst erop dat niet voor 100 procent zeker is dat de betreffende genen zullen leiden tot borst- of darmkanker.

De ChristenUnie is tegenstander van ivf en embryoselectie, omdat daarbij de niet-gebruikte embryo’s worden vernietigd. De partij wil de bestaande praktijk niet ter discussie stellen, maar is tegen verruiming van de mogelijkheden van selectie.

Premier Jan Peter Balkenende zei vrijdagmiddag dat er veel menselijke, medische en ethische aspecten in het geding zijn en stelde dat Bussemaker nu ook vindt dat de kwestie eerst door het kabinet behandeld moet worden. Het CDA twijfelt over de vraag of verruiming van de mogelijkheden van selectie moet worden toegestaan. De PvdA is wel voorstander. PvdA-partijleider en vicepremier Wouter Bos sprak vrijdag van “een goede brief”.

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I Phone 5 Application Development A Short Cut To Success On The I Tunes Store

Posted by on July 7, 2014

Read An Opinion On:

Submitted by: Kevin Kevin Upen Peterson

Every year, Apple launches a new iPhone. The latest version of this smartphone usually comes with a number of new features and facilities that make it a lot better than the previous version. This pushes a lot of hardcore Apple fans to ditch their existing iPhone and buy the latest iPhone. During the Christmas season, all the people who ve bought an iPhone 5 will be looking for powerful applications. Businesses that are looking to make a splash on the app store will take advantage of iPhone 5 application development.

How will developing custom app for iPhone 5 apps help?

During the festive season, people have a tendency to splurge. This will, as noted, lead to an increase in the sales f iPhone 5 devices. The App Store will be ready for the season and Apple will be keen to showcase all the new apps for iPhone 5. Businesses that target the festival season have a great chance of being featured on the App Store, and as we all know, an app that get the top billing on the iTunes Store is bound to get a good response from the Apple fans.

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By developing custom apps for iPhone 5, companies can find their way into hearts of Apple fans. What exactly do you need to do if you want to make it big? You need to create powerful applications that add real value to the life of the users. But that is not enough. You need to develop apps that are special importance to the person using the iPhone 5 device. This means that you need to create apps that benefit from the special iPhone 5 device features as well as the new iOS 6 features.

Apple iPhone 5 application development: what does it really mean?

While there is not much of a difference between developing apps for any other iPhone device and developing custom apps for iPhone 5, there is something special about successful iPhone 5 apps. The new Apple smartphone has an incredibly fast processor, amazing screen display, powerful cameras and mind-blowing Internet connectivity. Also, it has a large display that demands a slight change to the way an app is designed.

If you re developing an app for this smartphone, you need to build something that truly benefits from the latest device features. For instance, you could build a camera app that allowed more editing faculties to the user taking pictures with the iPhone 5 cameras. Also, you could build apps that enhance the functionality of iOS 6 features like Passbook, FaceTime, Siri or Maps. By providing much-needed services through your app, you can make your app indispensible to most users.

What kind of apps may make the cut?

Also, iPhone 5 games apps are going to be in demand. The device is almost as good as consoles when it comes to gaming. You could port existing games on this smartphone, or you could create a special game that benefits from the smartphone s increased graphic support and faster processing speed. More importantly, you can create apps for Halloween, Christmas, Presidential Election and other events to attract iPhone 5 users and get you app on Apple s list of featured apps!

About the Author: At IAD we have been developing popular and profitable iPhone apps since a long time. If you are looking for hiring iPhone 5 app developers who have hands-on experience with iOS 6 & iPhone apps development, go to


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Internet security firm to donate revenue to charity after Anonymous protest of Westboro Baptist Church

Posted by on July 5, 2014

Thursday, December 20, 2012 

Black Lotus Communications, which “prevents malicious traffic from reaching” websites, such as a Denial-of-service attack (DDoS), has announced their decision to donate revenue made from the Westboro Baptist Church (WBC) to charity. The company has confirmed their intentions in a statement to Wikinews.

“We have received overwhelming support for donations to be given to various groups supporting the Newtown community, veterans groups like the Wounded Warrior Project, and LGBT groups like The Trevor Project”, said Jeffrey Lyon, Certified Information Systems Security Professional with the Black Lotus team, to Wikinews. Lyon also says The United Way may be the first charity to receive their donation. “We’ve not [yet] made a formal decision,” Lyon noted, but the company “supports all of these groups and will give very serious consideration in ensuring that our donations have a strong impact.”

The announcement comes after the internet activist group known as Anonymous called on the companies that host and protect the Church’s website to discontinue providing services to them after the Church announced their decision to protest funerals of those killed in the December 14 shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut. According to Lyon the company decided to donate revenue made from WBC to charity after, “‘Anonymous’ supporters began a full blown Twitter campaign boycotting any company who provides services to WBC.” Lyon also said the company, “reached out to Anonymous spokespersons and asked their opinions on how the matter should be handled.”

The attack on WBC has been dubbed ‘#OpWestBor’ on the social network site Twitter. As part of the operation, the Church’s website was defaced and taken offline for most of the day Monday. Twitter accounts belonging to Shirley Phelps-Roper, the Church’s spokeswoman, and leader Fred Phelps, were hacked and taken over by Anonymous. At the time of this report, both accounts were still under control of the group. Roper’s account has been under the control of Anonymous since early Monday morning.

On Sunday, in a video posted on YouTube, Anonymous announced their intentions saying, “From the time you have received this message, our attack protocol has past been executed and your downfall is underway. Do not attempt to delude yourselves into thinking you can escape our reach, for we are everywhere, and all-seeing, in the same sense as God. … We will render you obsolete. We will destroy you. We are coming.” As a result of the breach, Anonymous claims to have gained access to and leaked alleged personal information such as names, home addresses and telephone numbers belonging to Church members. On Wednesday, following the leak, Twitter suspended one of Anonymous’ most followed accounts ‘@YourAnonNews’, claiming, according to Anonymous, that the profile posted “private and confidential information” regarding the lawyer for WBC and Roper. The account was reinstated a short time later and that is when Black Lotus contacted Anonymous.

“As a security service, we value freedom of expression … and have mandate to guarantee passage of data across the internet, which ultimately means that companies like Black Lotus should not interrupt services based solely on public opinion. By terminating their service, we would not actually take their sites offline. Instead, they would be without DDoS protection for a short period of time until they found another service that would harbor them. This logic did not add up for us”, Lyon added. He would not elaborate on how long WBC has sought the services of Black Lotus, but stated, “they did not come to us because of any one specific attack.”

Lyon didn’t state how much revenue is made from WBC, but he added the amount they receive “from WBC is very small.” As a result, Lyon says the company will “actually make donations well in excess” of the fees WBC pays. “These donations will be in the thousands [of dollars], but we’ve not come to a final decision on the exact amounts”, he added. According to Lyon, WBC is aware of the company’s intentions.

“We made it clear that while they have a right to expression, we have a social responsibility [to] ensure our services benefit society and to aid those in need”, said Lyon. Wikinews has contacted the WBC for a statement, but as of this report, no response has been received.

For now, Lyon states only revenue received from the WBC will be considered for donation, but they hope the project can be expanded to include other customers. “While we’re attributing this specific decision to WBC, our long term plan is to expand our philanthropy program to substantially offset any harm that may have been caused by those serving content over our network”, said Lyon. The company hopes to formally announce their decisions in a press release at the end of the week.

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